MALALAI JOYA – THE BRAVEST AFGHAN WOMAN

Malalai Joya (born April 25, 1978) is an Afghan politician who has been called “the bravest woman in Afghanistan.” As an elected member of the Wolesi Jirga from Farah province, she has publicly denounced the presence of what she considers warlords and war criminals in the parliament. She is an outspoken critic of both the Taliban as well as the present Afghan government of Karzai and its western supporters.

In May 2007, Joya was suspended from the parliament on the grounds that she had insulted fellow representatives in a television interview. Her suspension, which is currently being appealed, has generated protest internationally and appeals for her reinstatement have been signed by high profile writers, intellectuals such as Naomi Klein and Noam Chomsky, and politicians including Members of Parliament from Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain. Joya has been compared to the symbol of Burma’s democracy movement, Aung San Suu Kyi. TIME magazine named Malalai Joya to the 2010 TIME 100, the magazine’s annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world.

Joya has written a memoir with Canadian writer Derrick O’Keefe, under the title of “Raising My Voice”. Her most memorable quote is: “It is time for the women of Afghanistan to be unveiled, and for Afghanistan to rise again and be the great nation we remember it to be.” To be a woman growing up in Afghanistan under the Taliban and to survive is in itself a major feat. To be so lucky as to become literate in a place where girls are shrouded and denied even fresh air is close to a miracle. To start underground schools and educate girls under the noses of turbaned, self-appointed defenders of virtue and forbidders of vice is truly extraordinary.

But to get a seat in parliament and refuse to be silent in the face of the Taliban and warlord zealots shows true fiber. When Malalai Joya did this, her opponents responded in the usual way: expulsion from parliament, warnings, intimidation and attempts to cut her life short. She has survived all of it. Malalai, 31, is a leader. I hope in time she comes to see the U.S. and NATO forces in her country as her allies. She must use her notoriety, her demonstrated wit and her resilience to get the troops on her side instead of out of her country. The road to freedom is long and arduous and needs every hand.

AWARDS & HONORS

  • January 2004, The Cultural Union of Afghans in Europe, awarded her the “Malalai of Maiwand” award for her brave speech in the Loya Jirga.
  • December 2004, the Valle d’Aosta Province of Italy awarded her the International Women of the Year 2004 Award.
  • March 15, 2006, Mr. Tom Bates, Mayor of Berkeley presented a certificate of honor to her for “her continued work on behalf of human rights”.
  • March 2006, she got the “Gwangju Award for Human Rights 2006” from May 18th Foundation in South Korea.
  • Aug.2006, the Women’s Peacepower Foundation awarded Joya “Women of Peace award 2006”.
  • She was named among the “1000 Women for the Nobel Peace Prize 2005”
  • The World Economic Forum selected Joya among 250 Young Global Leaders for 2007.
  • 2007 Golden Fleur-de-Lis (Giglio d’Oro) award given by Town Council of Toscana Region of Italy (July 23, 2007).
  • September 11, 2007, The European Parliament named Joya among five nominees for Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought 2007.
  • October 6, 2007, Commune of Viareggio city of Italy awarded her the Mare Nostrum Award.
  • October 9, 2007, Commune of the Provincia di Arezzo, Comune di Bucine and Comune di Supino in Italy present Honorary citizenships to her.
  • November 2007, The 14th Angel Award by The Angel Festival, CA, USA.
  • February 11, 2008, Malalai Joya and the documentary “Enemies of Happiness” was honoured with the “International Human Rights Film Award” by Amnesty International, Cinema for Peace and Human Rights Film Network. The award was given to her by two times academy award winning actress Hilary Swank.
  • October 6, 2008, Malalai Joya received the Anna Politkovskaya Award in London which is given to courageous women who have defended human rights.
  • October 21, 2008, Regional Council of Tuscany (Italy) presented Malalai Joya a Gold Medal.
  • October 30, 2008, Spanish organization, Spanish Committee for the Assistance to the Refugees (CEAR), announce Malalai Joya and Kurdish activist Leyla Zana winner of 2008 Juan Maria Bandres award for Human Rights and solidarity with the refugees.
  • March 28, 2009, International Anti-discrimination Award 2009 by Dutch Unity is Strength Foundation, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
  • November 8, 2009, US Member of Congress Barbara Lee Honors Malalai Joya.
  • April 29, 2010, named to the 2010 TIME 100, the magazine’s annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world, although she is angry at how she was portrayed as in favor of the NATO and U.S. occupation.
  • June 23, 2010, Spanish daily El Mundo awards Yo Dona International award of “premio a la Labor Humanitaria” to Malalai in Madrid.

FILMS

  • Malalai Joya champions rape victims, 2008, by Glyn Strong.
  • Enemies of Happiness, 2006, directed by Eva Mulvad.
  • A Woman Among Warlords (2007). Directed by Eva Mulvad. Aired on the Wide Angle TV series in September 2007.
  • Afghanistan Unveiled 2004, by Nicolas Delloye, Aina Productions.

Checkout the Collection of ASCII Art and Pictures of Malalai Joya from the below link. Download the file and extract it to your PC. To view the ASCII Art that has been stored in the Notepad Text File, Open the text file in Notepad. Then Go to Format and Uncheck WordWrap, then In Format Go to Font and Change the Font to Lucida Console and Set the Font Size to 3 or 4 Pt. Now you could be able to see the ASCII Art. Maximize the window to view in full extent. ENJOY ! !

http://www.4shared.com/file/-fwHZa9h/Malalai_Joya.html

AMARTYA SEN – THE INDIAN ECONOMIST

Amartya Kumar Sen, born on 3rd November 1933, is an Indian economist who was awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to welfare economics and social choice theory and for his interest in the problems of society’s poorest members. Sen was best known for his work on the causes of famine, which led to the development of practical solutions for preventing or limiting the effects of real or perceived shortages of food.Sen was educated at Presidency College in Calcutta (now Kolkata). He went on to study at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he received a B.A. (1955), an M.A. (1959), and a Ph.D. (1959). He taught economics at a number of universities in India and England, including the Universities of Jadavpur (1956–58) and Delhi (1963–71), the London School of Economics, the University of London (1971–77), and the University of Oxford (1977–88), before moving to Harvard University (1988–98), where he was professor of economics and philosophy. In 1998 he was appointed master of Trinity College, Cambridge—a position he held until 2004, when he returned to Harvard as Lamont University Professor.

Welfare economics seeks to evaluate economic policies in terms of their effects on the well-being of the community. Sen, who devoted his career to such issues, was called the “conscience of his profession.” His influential monograph Collective Choice and Social Welfare (1970)—which addressed problems such as individual rights, majority rule, and the availability of information about individual conditions—inspired researchers to turn their attention to issues of basic welfare. Sen devised methods of measuring poverty that yielded useful information for improving economic conditions for the poor. For instance, his theoretical work on inequality provided an explanation for why there are fewer women than men in some poor countries in spite of the fact that more women than men are born and infant mortality is higher among males. Sen claimed that this skewed ratio results from the better health treatment and childhood opportunities afforded boys in those countries.

Sen’s interest in famine stemmed from personal experience. As a nine-year-old boy, he witnessed the Bengal famine of 1943, in which three million people perished. This staggering loss of life was unnecessary, Sen later concluded. He believed that there was an adequate food supply in India at the time but that its distribution was hindered because particular groups of people in this case rural laborers lost their jobs and therefore their ability to purchase the
food. In his book Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation (1981), Sen revealed that in many cases of famine, food supplies were not significantly reduced. Instead, a number of social and economic factors such as declining wages, unemployment, rising food prices, and poor food-distribution systems led to starvation among certain groups in society.

Sen’s first wife was Nabaneeta Dev Sen, an Indian writer and scholar, with whom he had two children: Antara, a journalist and publisher, and Nandana, a Bollywood actress. Their marriage broke up shortly after they moved to London in 1971. In 1973, he married his second wife, Eva Colorni, who died from stomach cancer quite suddenly in 1985. They had two children, Indrani, a journalist in New York, and Kabir, who teaches music at Shady Hill School.

His present wife, Emma Georgina Rothschild, is an economic historian, an expert on Adam Smith and Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Sen usually spends his winter holidays at his home in Santiniketan in West Bengal, India, where he likes to go on long bike rides, and maintains a house in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he and Emma spend the spring and long vacations. Asked how he relaxes, he replies: “I read a lot and like arguing with people.”

HONORS & AWARDS

  • He received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics for his work in welfare economics in 1998.
  • In 1999 he received the Bharat Ratna ‘the highest civilian award in India’ by the President of India. In 1999 he was offered honorary citizenship of Bangladesh from Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina in recognition of his achievements in winning the Nobel Prize, and given that his family origins were in what has become the modern state of Bangladesh.
  • He received the 2000 Leontief Prize for his outstanding contribution to economic theory from the Global Development and Environment Institute.
  • He was the 351st Commencement Speaker of Harvard University.
  • In 2002 he received the International Humanist Award from the International Humanist and Ethical Union.
  • Eisenhower Medal, for Leadership and Service USA, 2000.
  • Companion of Honour, UK, 2000. In 2002, he received an honorary degree from the university of Tokyo.
  • In 2003, he was conferred the Lifetime Achievement Award by the Indian Chamber of Commerce.
  • Life Time Achievement award by Bangkok-based United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP).
  • In 2009, Sen became a member of the SNV Netherlands Development Organisation’s International Advisory Board to contribute to the organisation’s work in poverty reduction and sustainable development.
  • He was chosen to deliver the Demos Annual Lecture 2010

PUBLICATIONS

  • Choice of Techniques, 1960. Sen, Amartya, An Aspect of Indian Agriculture, Economic Weekly, Vol. 14, 1962.
  • Collective Choice and Social Welfare, 1970, Holden-Day, 1984, Elsevier. Sen, Amartya, On Economic Inequality, New York, Norton, 1973. (Expanded edition with a substantial annexe by James E. Foster and A. Sen, 1997).
  • On Economic Inequality, 1973.
  • Poverty and Famines: an Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, 1981a.
  • Sen, Amartya, Poverty and Famines : An Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1982.
  • Sen, Amartya, Food Economics and Entitlements, Helsinki, Wider Working Paper 1, 1986.
  • Sen, Amartya, On Ethics and Economics, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1987.
  • Drèze, Jean and Sen, Amartya, Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1989. Hunger and Public Action, jointly edited with Jean Drèze, 1989.
  • Sen, Amartya, “More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing”. New York Review of Books, 1990.
  • Sen, Amartya, Inequality Reexamined, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • Nussbaum, Martha, and Sen, Amartya. The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity, with Jean Drèze, 1995.
  • Sen, Amartya, Reason Before Identity (The Romanes Lecture for 1998), Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Commodities and Capabilities, 1999.
  • Sen, Amartya, Development as Freedom, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Development as Freedom, 1999. Reason Before Identity, 1999.
  • Freedom, Rationality, and Social Choice: The Arrow Lectures and Other essays, 2000.
  • Sen, Amartya, Rationality and Freedom, Harvard, Harvard Belknap Press, 2002.
  • Rationality and Freedom, 2004.
  • Inequality Reexamined, 2004.
  • The Argumentative Indian, 2005.
  • Sen, Amartya, The Argumentative Indian, London: Allen Lane, 2005.
  • Sen, Amartya, The Three R’s of Reform, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 40(19): pp. 1971-1974, 2005.
  • Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny (Issues of Our Time), New York, W. W. Norton, 2006.
  • Imperial Illusions: India, Britain, and the wrong lessons. By Amartya Sen.
  • Response by Niall Ferguson. Equality of Capacity by Amartya Sen.
  • The Idea of Justice Harvard University Press & London: Allen Lane,2009.

Checkout the ASCII Art of Amartya Sen in the below link. Please use Lucida Console font to view the art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.

http://www.4shared.com/document/wjNitkjG/Amartya_Sen.html

HOWARD HUGHES – THE AVIATOR

Howard Hughes’ father, Howard Hughes Sr., made his fortune by designing a drill bit that could drill through hard rock. Before this new bit, oil drillers weren’t able to reach the large pockets of oil lying beneath the hard rock. Howard Hughes Sr. and a colleague established the Sharp-Hughes Tool Company which held the patent for the new drill bit, manufactured the bit, and leased the bit to oil. Though he grew up in a wealthy household, Howard Hughes Jr. had difficulty focusing on school and changed schools often. Rather than sitting in a classroom, Hughes preferred to learn by tinkering with mechanical things. For instance, when his mother forbade him from having a motorcycle, he built one by building a motor and adding it to his bicycle. Hughes was a loner in his youth; with one notable exception, Hughes never really had any friends.

When Hughes was just 16-years old, his doting mother passed away. And then not even two years later, his father also suddenly passed away. Howard Hughes received 75% of his father’s million-dollar estate; the other 25% went to relatives.

Hughes immediately disagreed with his relatives over the running of Hughes Tool Company but being only 18-years old, Hughes could not do anything about it because he would not legally be considered an adult until age 21. Frustrated but determined, Hughes went to court and got a judge to grant him legal adulthood. He then bought out his relatives’ shares of the company. At age 19, Hughes became full owner of the company and also got married (to Ella Rice).
In 1925, Hughes and his wife decided to move to Hollywood and spend some time with Hughes’ uncle, Rupert, who was a screenwriter. Hughes quickly became enchanted with movie making. Hughes jumped right in and filmed Swell Hogan but quickly realized it wasn’t good so he never released it. Learning from his mistakes, Hughes continued making movies. His third, Two Arabian Knights won an Oscar.

With one success under his belt, Hughes wanted to make an epic about aviation and set to work on Hell’s Angels. It became his obsession. His wife, tired of being neglected, divorced him. Hughes continued making films, producing over 25 of them.

In 1932, Hughes had a new obsession — aviation. He formed the Hughes Aircraft Company and bought several airplanes and hired numerous engineers and designers. He wanted a quicker, faster plane. He spent the rest of the 1930s setting new speed records. In 1938, he flew around the world, breaking Wiley Post’s record. Though Hughes was given a ticker-tape parade on his arrival in New York, he was already showing signs of wanting to shun the public spotlight.
In 1944, Hughes won a government contract to design a large, flying boat that could carry both people and supplies to the war in Europe. The “Spruce Goose,” the largest plane ever constructed, was flown successfully in 1947 and then never flown again. Hughes’ company also developed a chain feeder for the machine guns on bombers and later built helicopters.

By the mid-1950s, Hughes’ dislike of being a public figure began to severely affect his life. Though he married actress Jean Peters in 1957, he began to avoid public appearances. He traveled for a bit, then in 1966 he moved to Las Vegas, where he holed himself up in the Desert Inn Hotel. When the hotel threatened to evict him, he purchased the hotel. He also bought several other hotels and property in Las Vegas. For the next several years, hardly a single person saw Hughes. He had become so reclusive that he nearly never left his hotel suite.

In 1970, Hughes’ marriage ended and he left Las Vegas. He moved from one country to another and died in 1976, aboard an airplane, while traveling from Acapulco, Mexico to Houston, Texas. Hughes had become such a hermit in his last years that no one was sure it was really Hughes that had died, so the Treasury Department had to use fingerprints to confirm the death of billionaire Howard Hughes.

Checkout the ASCII Art of Howard Hughes in the below link. Please use Lucida Console font to view the art in Notepad. Befor that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.

http://www.4shared.com/document/UggAmih_/Howard_Hughes.html