ROBIN LI – THE CHINESE ENTREPRENEUR


Robin Li is a Chinese entrepreneur, co-founder of China’s most popular search engine Baidu. Li studied information management at Peking University and the State University of New York, Buffalo. In 2000 he founded Baidu with Eric Xu. He has been the CEO of Baidu since January 2004, which was listed on NASDAQ in August 2005. Li has been listed as one of the 15 Asian Scientists To Watch by Asian Scientist Magazine on 15 May 2011.

Childhood & Early Years:

Li was born in Yangquan, Shanxi, China, where he spent most of his childhood. Both of his parents were factory workers. Li was the fourth of five children, and the only boy among the five. Li was admitted by Yangquan First High School by achieving the second highest grades in the entrance examination. In high school, Li enjoyed computer class and participated in numerous programming competitions city-wide. In 1987, Li attended the National Higher Education Entrance Examination and achieved the top grade among all examinees in Yangquan. Consequently, he chose Peking University for college where he studied information management for four years and received a Bachelor of Science degree.

In the fall of 1991, Li went to SUNY-Buffalo in the US to study computer science towards a Doctoral degree. He received his Master of Science degree in 1994 after he had decided to discontinue his PhD program work.

Idea of Baidu:

In 1994, Li joined IDD Information Services, a New Jersey division of Dow Jones and Company, where he helped develop a software program for the online edition of The Wall Street Journal. He also did work on better algorithms for search engines. He remained at IDD Information Services from May 1994 to June 1997.

In 1996, while at IDD, Li developed the RankDex site-scoring algorithm for search engines results page ranking and received a US patent for the technology. He later used this technology for the Baidu search engine. Robin worked as a staff engineer for Infoseek, a pioneer internet search engine company, from July 1997 to December 1999. Another of his important innovative achievements was the picture search of Go.com.

In the nine years since founding Baidu in January 2000, Robin has turned the company into the largest Chinese search engine, with over 70% market share, and the third largest independent search engine in the world. In 2005, Baidu completed its successful IPO on NASDAQ, and in 2007 became the first Chinese company to be included in the NASDAQ-100 Index. He was listed in the CNN Money annual “50 people who matter now” in 2007.

Honors:

  • In 1998, he published the book Business War in Silicon Valley in the Mainland according to his work and life experience in Silicon Valley.
  • At the end of 1999, he brought risk investment back to China to found Baidu with his friend Eric Xu.
  • In 2001, he was titled “the Chinese Top Ten Innovative Pioneers”
  • In 2002 and 2003, he was honored of “IT Ten Famous Persons”
  • In April, 2004, he was elected the second session of “Chinese Software Ten Outstanding Young Persons”
  • On August 23, 2005, he was honored the twelfth session of “ASEAN Youth Award”
  • On December 28, he was honored of “CCTV 2005 Chinese Economic Figures of The Year”
  • On December 10, he was elected 2006 world’s “Best Business Leader” of the American Business Weekly.

Family:

Robin Li is married to Dongmin Ma. In 1995, Li met Ma at a social event of Chinese students in the Greater New York area. They had dated for 6 months before they wedded on October 10 the same year in New Jersey. They have one daughter.

Checkout the ASCII Art and Pictures of Robin Li in the below link. Extract the Files from WinRAR Archive. Please use Lucida Console font to view the ascii art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Wrap and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.

http://www.4shared.com/file/vw4lKH8o/Robin_li.html

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JIMBO – THE INTERNET ENTREPRENEUR

 

 

ABOUT JIMBO:

Jimmy Donal “Jimbo” Wales was born August 7, 1966, is an American Internet entrepreneur and a co-founder and promoter of Wikipedia.

Wales was born in Huntsville, Alabama in the United States. He attended Randolph School, a university-preparatory school, then earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in finance. While in graduate school, he taught at two universities, but left before completing a Ph.D. in order to take a job in finance and later worked as the research director of a Chicago futures and options firm. In 1996, he and two partners founded Bomis, a male-oriented web portal featuring entertainment and adult content. The company would provide the initial funding for the peer-reviewed free encyclopedia Nupedia (2000–2003) and its successor, Wikipedia.

In 2001, together with Larry Sanger and others, Wales helped launch Wikipedia, a free, open content encyclopedia that enjoyed rapid growth and popularity, and as Wikipedia’s public profile grew, he became the project’s promoter and spokesman. He is historically cited as a co-founder of Wikipedia, though he has disputed the “co-” designation, declaring himself the sole founder. Wales serves on the Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation, the non-profit charitable organization he helped establish to operate Wikipedia, holding its board-appointed “community founder” seat. In 2004, he co-founded Wikia, a for-profit wiki-hosting service.

Wales has been married twice and has a daughter with his second wife Christine, from whom he is separated. He describes himself as an Objectivist and, with reservations, a libertarian. His role in creating Wikipedia, which has become the world’s largest encyclopedia, prompted Time magazine to name him in its 2006 list of the world’s most influential people.

SALARY:

Jimmy Wales’ biography on Wikipedia claims that he is independently wealthy. According to Wikipedia, Wales made enough money while working in the finance industry in Chicago to support himself and his wife for the rest of their lives. An article in Wired is cited. However on the talk page, Wales claims that his net worth is considerably less: “I do not have millions of dollars. I do not even have one million dollars.”

It is likely that Wales makes his living from Wikipedia. He is not paid directly by the Wikimedia Foundation, and he claims that he is not reimbursed for expenses while conducting Wikipedia business, even when traveling to board meetings. The way Mr. Wales makes a living is by getting $50,000 to $70,000 per speaking engagement when he goes and lectures about Wikipedia.

He also uses these speaking opportunities to publicize a side project, Wikia, which is for-profit. Wikipedia also deviates from its usual low tolerance for spam, allowing thousands of links to Wikia and not giving them the usual “no follow” treatment, thus elevating Wikia’s search engine rankings. This “interwiki” treatment is not always available to other websites.

The recent announcement of a partnership with Orange, a European telecommunications company, shows that Wales has a renewed interest in monetizing the content on Wikipedia.

JIMBO’s VISION:

Jimbo Wales wants Wikipedia to be open for everyone. He does not like to ban anyone, and indeed refused to ban anyone at all initially and did not allow admins to have the ability to ban. Jimbo is also keen on privacy, to the extent that admins cannot even see IP addresses, and to see something as commonplace as an IP address requires special magical CheckUser abilities that only a select few have.

Sadly, such rules end up being abused and making it less private than ever and more able to be abused with power tripping and corruption than a more open system. Jimbo’s vision is to create a serious encyclopaedia. He doesn’t particularly like it when people make fun of it, or treat it as anything less than super serious.

OTHERS:

In May 2010, Jimbo attempted to delete some of the pornography from Wikimedia Commons. He was condemned by a majority of Wikimedians and pressured to remove some administrative tools from his “founder” software status. Wikipedia was started by Bomis, an internet company that offered adult content. Bomis was founded by Jimmy Wales and Tim Shell. Bomis funded Wikipedia in the early days before Wikipedia began accepting donations.

Jimmy Wales claims to have no connection with Wikileaks (wikileaks.org). However his company, Wikia, owns the domain names wikileaks.com, wikileaks.net, and wikileaks.us. All three of these sites publish content from Wikileaks. (Note: the www format must be used: e.g. www.wikileaks.com).

HONORS, AWARDS & POSITIONS:

  • 1) Wales received the Quadriga award on October 3, 2008
  • 2) Mid-2005 — Wales was appointed as a member of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School.
  • 3) October 3, 2005 — Wales joined the Board of Directors of Socialtext, a provider of wiki technology to businesses.
  • 4) 2006 — Wales joined the Board of Directors of the non-profit organization Creative Commons.
  • 5) May 8, 2006 — Wales was listed in the “Scientists & Thinkers” section of the 100 influential people special edition of Time magazine.
  • 6) June 3, 2006 — Wales received an honorary degree of doctor of laws from Knox College.
  • 7) May 3, 2006 — The Electronic Frontier Foundation awarded him a Pioneer Award.
  • 8) 2006 — Wales was appointed to the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence.
  • 9) January 23, 2007 — Forbes magazine ranked Wales twelfth in its first annual “The Web Celebs 25”.
  • 10) 2007 — Wales was recognized by the World Economic Forum as one of the ‘Young Global Leaders’ of 2007.
  • 11) May 2008 — Wales co-chaired the World Economic Forum on the Middle East 2008 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.
  • 12) 2008 — CORUM awarded him The Global Brand Icon of the Year Award for 2008.
  • 13) 2008 — Wales accepted on behalf of the Wikimedia project the Quadriga award of Werkstatt Deutschland for A Mission of Enlightenment.
  • 14) October 30, 2008 — Wales was awarded the Business Process Award at the 7th Annual Innovation Awards and Summit by The 15) Economist “for public collaboration as a form of product and content development.”
  • 16) November 4, 2009 — Wales was recognized with the Nokia Foundation annual award (2009) “for his contributions to the evolution of the World Wide Web as a participatory and truly democratic platform”.
  • 17) November 2009 — Wales was awarded the Monaco Media Prize for enabling collaborative knowledge-seeking.
  • 18) December 7, 2009 — Wales announced that he will be joining the New York City-based Hunch.com as Board Member and advisor.
  • 19) April 8, 2010 — Wales was honored as a Stuart Regen Visionary at New Museum in New York City.
  • 20) May 21, 2010 — Wales received an honorary degree of doctor of laws from Stevenson University. Wales said that this was the very first college commencement speech that he had delivered.
  • 21) May 23, 2010 — Wales received an honorary degree of doctor of humane letters from Amherst College.
  • 22) January 26, 2011 — Wales was slated to be awarded on the foregoing date the Gottlieb Duttweiler Prize according to an announcement made on October 8, 2010.

AS AN AUTHOR:

  • 1) Brooks, Robert; Jon Corson, Jimmy Donal Wales (1994). “The Pricing of Index Options When the Underlying Assets All Follow a Lognormal Diffusion”. Advances in Futures and Options Research 7.
  • 2) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (December 31, 2008), “Foreword”, in Fraser, Matthew; Dutta, Soumitra, Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom: How Online Social Networking Will Transform Your Life, Work and World (1st ed.), Wiley, ISBN 0470740140, OCLC 233939846.
  • 3) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (January 8, 2009). “Commentary: Create a tech-friendly U.S. government”. CNN.com.
  • 4) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (February 10, 2009), “Foreword”, in Powell, Juliette, 33 Million People in the Room: How to Create, Influence, and Run a Successful Business with Social Networking (1st ed.), Financial Times Press, ISBN 0137154356, OCLC 244066502.
  • 5) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (March 3, 2009), “Foreword”, in Weber, Larry, Marketing to the Social Web: How Digital Customer Communities Build Your Business (2nd ed.), Wiley, ISBN 0470410973, OCLC 244060887.
  • 6) Wales, Jimmy (March 17, 2009), Lih, Andrew, ed., The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World’s Greatest Encyclopedia (1st ed.), Hyperion, ISBN 1401303714, OCLC 232977686.
  • 7) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (March 30, 2009). “Most Define User-Generated Content Too Narrowly”. Advertising Age 80.
  • 8) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (December 28, 2009). “Keep a Civil Cybertongue”. The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company).
Checkout the ASCII Art and Pictures of Jimbo in the below link. Extract the Files from WinRAR Archive. Please use Lucida Console font to view the ascii art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.
http://www.4shared.com/file/G0tkqK-5/Jimmy_Wales.html

MICHAEL POLLAN – FAMOUS AMERICAN AUTHOR

Michael Pollan was born on Sunday, February 06, 1955 and he is a famous American author, journalist, activist, and professor of journalism at the University of California, Berkeley. Pollan was born to author and financial consultant Stephen Pollan and columnist Corky Pollan. Pollan received a B.A. from Bennington College in 1977 and an M.A. in English from Columbia University in 1981. He lives in the Bay Area with his wife, the painter Judith Belzer, and their son, Isaac.

For the past twenty-five years, Michael Pollan has been writing books and articles about the places where nature and culture intersect: on our plates, in our farms and gardens, and in the built environment. He is the author of four New York Times bestsellers: Food Rules: An Eater’s Manual (2010); In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto (2008); The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (2006) and The Botany of Desire: A Plant’s-Eye View of the World (2001). The Omnivore’s Dilemma was named one of the ten best books of 2006 by both the New York Times and the Washington Post. It also won the California Book Award, the Northern California Book Award, the James Beard Award, and was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award. A young readers edition called The Omnivore’s Dilemma: the Secrets Behind What You Eat was published in 2009. The Botany of Desire received the Borders Original Voices Award for the best non-fiction work of 2001, and was recognized as a best book of the year by the American Booksellers Association and Amazon.com. PBS premiered a two-hour special documentary based on The Botany of Desire in fall 2009. Pollan is also the author of A Place of My Own (1997) and Second Nature (1991).Pollan was named to the 2010 TIME 100, the magazine’s annual list of the world’s 100 most influential people. In 2009 he was named by Newsweek as one of the top 10 “New Thought Leaders.” A contributing writer to The New York Times Magazine since 1987, his writing has received numerous awards: he was a finalist for the National Magazine Award in 2009 for best essay; he received the James Beard Award for best magazine series in 2003; the John Burroughs prize in 1997 for best natural history essay; the QPB New Vision Award for his first book, Second Nature; the 2000 Reuters-I.U.C.N. Global Award for Environmental Journalism for his reporting on genetically modified crops; the 2003 Humane Society of the United States’ Genesis Award for his writing on animal agriculture; the 2008 Truth in Agricultural Journalism Award from the American Corngrowers Association; the 2009 President’s Citation Award from the American Institute of Biological Sciences, and the 2009 Voices of Nature Award from the Natural Resources Defense Council. His essays have appeared in many anthologies, including Best American Essays (1990 and 2003), Best American Science Writing (2004), the Norton Book of Nature Writing, and The New Kings of Non-Fiction, edited by Ira Glass. In addition to publishing regularly in The New York Times Magazine, his articles have appeared in Harper’s Magazine (where he served as executive editor from 1984 to 1994), National Geographic, Mother Jones, The Nation, The New York Review of Books, Vogue, Travel + Leisure, Gourmet, House & Garden and Gardens Illustrated, among others. In 2009, he appeared in a two-hour PBS special based on The Botany of Desire as well as in the documentary, Food Inc., which received an Academy Award nomination.

In 2003, Pollan was appointed the John S. and James L. Knight Professor of Journalism at UC Berkeley’s Graduate School of Journalism, and the director of the Knight Program in Science and Environmental Journalism. In addition to teaching, he lectures widely on food, agriculture, health and the environment.Pollan is a contributing writer for the New York Times Magazine, a former executive editor for Harper’s Magazine, and author of five books: In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto (2008) The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (2006), The Botany of Desire: A Plant’s-Eye View of the World (2001), A Place of My Own (1997), and Second Nature A Gardener’s Education (1991).

His recent work has dealt with the practices of the meat industry, and he has written a number of articles on trends in American agriculture. He has received the Reuters World Conservation Union Global Awards in environmental journalism, the James Beard Foundation Awards for best magazine series in 2003, and the Genesis Award from the American Humane Association. His articles have been anthologized in Best American Science Writing (2004), Best American Essays (1990 and 2003), The Animals: Practicing Complexity (2006) and the Norton Book of Nature Writing (1990).

Pollan co-starred in the documentary, Food, Inc. (2008), for which he was also a consultant.

BOOKS

 

  • Pollan, Michael (1991). Second Nature: A Gardener’s Education. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 9780871134431.
  • Pollan, Michael (1997). Place of My Own: The Education of an Amateur Builder. New York: Random House. ISBN 9780679415329.
  • Pollan, Michael (2001). The Botany of Desire: A Plant’s-Eye View of the World. New York: Random House. ISBN 9780375501296.
  • Pollan, Michael (2006). The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 9781594200823.
  • Pollan, Michael (2008). In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 9781594201455.
  • Pollan, Michael (2009). Food Rules: An Eater’s Manual. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0143116387.

ESSAYS

  • Pollan, Michael (April, 1997). “Opium Made Easy”. Harper’s.
  • Pollan, Michael (July 19, 2002). “When a Crop Becomes King”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (November 10, 2002). “An Animal’s Place”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (June 4, 2006). “Mass Natural”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (June 11, 2006). “Six rules for eating wisely”. Time magazine. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (January 28, 2007). “Unhappy Meals”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (22April 2007). “You Are What You Grow”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (December 16, 2007). “Our Decrepit Food Factories”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (April 20, 2008). “Why bother?”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (October 9, 2008). “An Open Letter to the Farmer in Chief”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
  • Pollan, Michael (July 29, 2009). “Out of the Kitchen, Onto the Couch”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-02.
  • Pollan, Michael (September 9, 2009). “Big Food vs. Big Insurance”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-14.

INTERVIEWS

  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Ketzel Levine. A Plant’s-Eye View Of The World (audio). Morning Edition. NPR. June 4, 2001. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Helen Wagenvoord. The Cheapest Calories Make You the Fattest (transcript). Sierra Magazine. September 2004. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Jason Marsh. Edible Ethics (transcript). Greater Good magazine. Spring/Summer 2006. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Amy Goodman. In Defense of Food (video/audio/transcript). Democracy Now. February 13, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Warren Etheredge. An Evening with Michael Pollan (audio). The Warren Report. October 30, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Bill Moyers. Bill Moyers Journal. PBS. November 28, 2008. (Interview ). Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Melissa Moser. Food and Fossil Fuels (video). Powering A Nation: UNC News21 Project. June 25, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-08-04.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Melissa Moser. Checking Out Michael Pollan’s Garden (video). Powering A Nation: UNC News21 Project. June 25, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-08-04.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Waylon Lewis. Walk the Talk Show with Waylon Lewis interview: Michael Pollan. Sponsored by Gaiam. (video). Walk the Talk Show with Waylon Lewis. June 22, 2009. Retrieved on 2010-09-23.

Checkout the ASCII Art and Pictures of Michael Pollan in the below link. Extract the Files from WinRAR Archive. Please use Lucida Console font to view the ascii art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.

http://www.4shared.com/file/jEP36gMO/Michael_Pollan.html

ROGER TOMLINSON – FATHER OF GIS

Roger F. Tomlinson, CM (born 17 November 1933) is an English geographer and the primary originator of modern computerized Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and has been touted as the “Father of GIS”. He is known as a visionary geographer who conceived and developed GIS for use by the Canada Land Inventory. His pioneering work, beginning in the early1960s, changed the face of geography as a discipline and he was awarded an Order of Canada, which is Canada’s highest civilian honor. Governments and scientists around the world have turned to him to better understand the environment and changing patterns of land use, and to better manage urban development and the use of natural resources.Dr. Tomlinson’s contributions include chairmanship of the International Geographical Union’s GIS Commission for 12 years, and where he pioneered the concepts of worldwide geographical data availability. He is a past president of the Canadian Association of Geographers and a recipient of its rare Award for Service to the Profession. The Association of American Geographers in the United States awarded him the James R. Anderson Medal of Honor for Applied Geography in 1995. Dr. Tomlinson is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and winner of its prestigious Murchison Award for the Development of Geographic Information Systems. In 1996 he was awarded the GIS World Lifetime Achievement Award for a lifetime of work with geographic information systems, and he was the first recipient of the ESRI Lifetime Achievement Award in 1997. Dr. Tomlinson was awarded the Order of Canada in February of 2004.

Born in Cambridge, England, Dr. Tomlinson adopted Canada as his home in 1957. During the spring of 1962, while on a plane bound from Ottawa to Toronto he met Lee Pratt, then recently named head of the Canada Land Inventory (CLI). Tomlinson then was chief of the computer mapping division at a Canadian airline service. Pratt described a vast mapping project CLI was about to undertake – a multilayer land-use/ planning map of Canada’s inhabited and productive land–around 1 million square miles. Tomlinson told Pratt some of his ideas might work for CLI and Pratt eventually hired him to head the program that resulted in the first GIS.

He holds bachelor’s degrees from Nottingham University in England and Acadia University in Canada; a master’s degree from McGill University in Canada; and a Ph.D. from University College in England.

Dr. Tomlinson is the principal of Tomlinson Associates, Ltd., Consulting Geographers, which was established in 1977 in Ottawa, Ontario. He has advised clients such as the World Bank, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the U.S. departments of Commerce and Agriculture, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Bureau of the Census, the Canadian Forest Service, and numerous U.S. state and Canadian provincial and municipal government agencies.

Checkout the ASCII Art and Pictures of Roger Tomlinson in the below link. Extract the Files from WinRAR Archive. Please use Lucida Console font to view the ASCII art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.

http://www.4shared.com/file/4PeGNPcu/RogerTomlinson.html

CONFUCIUS – THE MOST INFLUENTIAL CHINESE PHILOSOPHER

The Chinese teacher and philosopher Confucius was the founder of the school of philosophy known as the Ju or Confucianism, which is still very influential in China. He was born on 551 B.C.E in Tuo, China.

INFO OF HIS LIFE

Confucius is the Latinized name of K’ung Fu-tzu (Great Master K’ung). His original name was K’ung Ch’iu; he is also known as K’ung Chung-ni. The most detailed traditional account of Confucius’s life is contained in the Records of the Historian (Shih chi) by Ssu-ma Ch’ien, who lived from 145 B.C.E. to 86 B.C.E. Many modern scholars have dismissed this biography as only legend. Nevertheless, from this manuscript one can reconstruct a satisfactory outline of the philosopher’s life and influence.

According to the Records of the Historian, Confucius was a descendant of a branch of the royal house of Shang, the dynasty (a family of rulers) that ruled China prior to the Chou, and a dynasty which ruled China from around 1122 B.C.E. to 221 B.C.E. His family, the K’ung, moved to the small state of Lu, located in the modern province of Shantung in northeastern China.

It was believed that Confucius’s father divorced his first wife at an advanced age, because she had borne him only daughters and one disfigured son. He then married a fifteen-year-old girl from the Yen clan, who gave birth to Confucius. Ssu-ma Ch’ien refers to the relationship as a “wild union,” which very possibly indicates that Confucius was an illegitimate child, or a child born out of wedlock.

In the Analects, Confucius’s book of teachings, he writes that during his youth he was poor and was forced to acquire many different skills. It is clear that even though the fortunes of his family had declined, he was no commoner. Confucius unquestionably belonged to the aristocratic (ruling) class known as the shih. In the time of Confucius most shih served as court officials, scholars, and teachers. Confucius’s first occupation appears to have been as keeper of the Lu granary. Later he worked as supervisor of the fields. Both were low positions but consistent with his shih status.

CAREER AS A TEACHER

It is not known exactly when Confucius began his teaching career, but it does not appear to have been much before the age of thirty. In 518 B.C.E. he is said to have met the famous teacher Lao Tzu (sixth century B.C.E. ), who reportedly bluntly criticized Confucius for his stuffiness and arrogance. Confucius eventually returned to Lu around 515 B.C.E. For several years after his return he does not appear to have accepted a governmental position. Instead it appears he spent most of his time studying and teaching, gathering a large number of students around him. Although one can only guess about the school’s exact course work, it undoubtedly included instruction in ritual, music, history, and poetry.

Around 498 B.C.E. , Confucius decided to leave his home in Lu and embark on a long journey throughout eastern China. He was accompanied by several of his disciples (followers). They wandered throughout the eastern states of Wei, Sung, and Ch’en and at various times had their lives threatened. Confucius was almost assassinated (killed) in Sung. On another occasion he was mistaken for the adventurer Yang Hu and was arrested and held until his true identity became known.

Confucius was received with great respect by the rulers of the states he visited, and he even seems to have received occasional payments. He spent much of his time developing his ideas on the art of government, as well as continuing his teaching. He acquired a large following, and the solidification of the Confucian school probably occurred during these years. Not all of his disciples followed him on his travels. Several of them actually returned to Lu and assumed positions with the Chi clan. It may have been through their influence that in 484 B.C.E. Confucius was invited back to Lu.

FINAL YEARS

Confucius was warmly received in Lu, but there is no indication that he was given a responsible position. Little is known about his last years, although this would have been a logical time for him to work on the many texts and documents he supposedly gathered on his journey. Much of his time was devoted to teaching, and he seems to have remained more or less distant from political affairs. This was an unhappy period for Confucius. His only son died about this time; his favorite disciple, Yen Hui, died the very year of his return to Lu; and in 480 B.C.E. another disciple, Tzu-lu, was killed in battle. Confucius felt all of these losses deeply, and his sadness and frustration must have been intensified by the realization that his political ideas had found no support among the rulers of his own state. Confucius died in 479 B.C.E in Qufu, China. His disciples conducted his funeral and observed a mourning period for him.

CONFUCIUS’S TEACHINGS

Although we cannot be certain that Confucius wrote any of the works he is credited with, it is still possible to know something about the general nature of his philosophy. Shortly after his death his disciples compiled a work known as the Lun yü, commonly translated as the Analects but more accurately rendered as the Edited Conversations. This work consists of conversations between Confucius, his students, and an occasional ruler. The primary emphasis of the Lun yü is on political philosophy. Confucius taught that the primary task of the ruler was to achieve the welfare (well-being) and happiness of the people of his state. To accomplish this aim, the ruler first had to set a moral (good character) example by his own conduct. This example would in turn influence the people’s behavior.

Confucius is the first Chinese thinker to introduce concepts that became fundamental not only to Confucian philosophy but to Chinese philosophy in general. The most important of these are jen (benevolence), yi (propriety, or being proper), and li (ritual, or ceremony). Confucius believed that the chün-tzu, or “gentleman,” must set the moral example for others in society to follow. In the Lun yü jen, what has been translated as humaneness or benevolence (being kind) is a quality a chün-tzu should develop and attempt to encourage in others. Li is considered the rules and ritual that are observed in religious and nonreligious ceremonies and, as applied to the chün-tzu, composed rules of behavior. Yi represents what is right and proper in a given situation. The chün-tzu, by observing the ritual and because of his good nature, always knows what is right.

Confucius was basically a humanist and one of the greatest teachers in Chinese history. His influence on his immediate disciples was deep. His students continued to explain his theories until, in the first Han dynasty (206 B.C.E. –8 C. E.), the theories became the basis of the state ideology, the body of ideas reflecting the social needs of a culture.

Dr.NAMPERUMALSAMY – THE VISIONARY OF THE BLINDS

Perumalsamy Namperumalsamy is an Indian ophthalmologist who specializes in diabetic retinopathy. He is also a a retina-vitreous expert. Namperumalsamy is currently the chairman of Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai. He is known for bringing assembly-line efficiency to eye surgery. In 2010, TIME magazine named Namperumalsamy one of the 100 most influential people in the world.

Under the chairmanship of Namperumalsamy, Aravind Eye Hospital, received the 2010 Conrad N. Hilton Humanitarian Prize, which is awarded annually to an organization that does extraordinary work to alleviate human suffering.

A postgraduate fellow of the University of Illinois, Chicago, Namperumalsamy started the India’s first Low Vision Aid Centre at the Government Rajaji Hospital in Madurai in 1971. He is currently the chairman of Aravind Eye Hospital. Namperumalsamy is a reciepient of Padma Shri Award from the Government of India.

AWARDS & HONORS

  • “RUSTOM RANJI ORATION GOLD MEDAL” by Andhra State Ophthalmic Conference “CLOSED VITRECTOMY”, October 1982.
  • Dr. P. SIVA REDDY ORATION GOLD MEDAL, RECENT CONCEPTS on AETIOLOGY and MANAGEMENT in EALES DISEASE All India Ophthalmological Conference Kanpur in 1986.
  • Dr.JOSEPH GNANADICKAM MEMORIAL GOLD MEDAL ORATION RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT MANAGEMENT Madras State Ophthalmic Association Conference Pondicherry 1986.
  • “PARASNATH SINHA GOLD MEDAL ORATION” on PRESENT STATUSof PARS PLANA SURGERY at Bihar Ophthalmological Society and Third Eastern Zone Ophthalmological Conference, Patna 1987.
  • “C.S. RESHMI AWARD” for BEST VIDEO FILM PRESENTATION at the 46th All India Ophthalmological Conference, Bombay 1988.
  • PADMABHUSHAN DR.P.SIVA REDDYS ENDOWNMENT BEST TEACHER AWARD on 12th September 1998 at Hyderabad by the Andhra Pradesh Academic Sciences.
  • MOST OUTSTANDING RETINAL SURGEON OF THE MILLENNIUM presented by the Executive Committee of “Eye Advance 2000”, Bombay, September 2000.
  • INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATES of PROCTOR FOUNDATION – recognized by Proctor Foundation, USA.
  • Award for DISTINGUISHED SERVICE TO HUMANITY – by Tamilnadu Senior Citizens & Pensioners Welfare Association II State Conference, Coimbatore, May 2002.
  • DR.R.V.RAJAM ORATION AWARD – on “DIABETIC RETINOPATHY- AN EMERGING PROBLEM IN INDIA” at the 43rd Annual Conference of National Academy of Medical Sciences (India) at Jaipur, April 2004.

In less time than it takes to read this magazine, a simple surgery can give a blind person her eyesight back.

A miracle? Absolutely. But Dr. Perumalsamy Namperumalsamy, 70, and his army of cataract fixers at India’s Aravind Eye Care Hospitals make it look easy. The surgery has been around for decades, but the chairman of Aravind Eye Hospital which was founded in 1976 with the goal of bringing assembly-line efficiency to health care, figured out how to replace cataracts safely and quickly: 3.6 million surgeries to date, a new one every 15 minutes.

Equally brilliant is the business model: the 30% of patients who can afford to pay subsidize free or low-cost care for the 70% who are poor. “All people have a right to sight,” Namperumalsamy says. As I write these words after a long day spent in the slums in India, I cannot tell you how much admiration I have for him and his team. I’ll say he is the right person to give sight for the blind.

Checkout the ASCII Art of Dr.Namperumalsamy in the below link. Please use Lucida Console font to view the art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.

http://www.4shared.com/document/anDx6aQj/DrNamperumalsamy.html

DEBORAH GIST – THE COMMISSIONER OF RIDE

Deborah A. Gist, who taught and served directly in schools for more than a decade early in her career, began her service as the Rhode Island Commissioner of Elementary and Secondary Education on July 1, 2009.Previously, she served as State Superintendent of Education in the District of Columbia, beginning in June 2007. As the first state superintendent of education in the District, she was responsible for transitioning all state-level education functions to the newly formed office of the state superintendent of education and for putting into effect the accountability systems of the federal No Child Left Behind education law.

As state superintendent of education, Gist created new, progressive educator-certification polices for teachers and school administrators, allowing school districts and nonprofit organizations to apply to certify educators, and she enacted new standards for teacher-preparation programs to improve quality, expand opportunity, and encourage innovation. Gist worked with the first state board of education in the District to transition its role to that of a policy-setting body during its first year of existence, and she developed many important state-level education policies, including standards for health and physical education, world languages, arts education, and early-childhood learning.

Before taking on the role as State Superintendent, Gist served for three years as the state education officer in the District. In that role, she restored the confidence of Congress in the Tuition Assistance Grants program, resulting in a federal funding increase of more than 100 percent for a program that now serves more than 5,000 college students in the District each year. She also oversaw dramatic improvements in much-maligned child-nutrition programs in the District, including the Summer Food Service program, which was subsequently named the best-performing summer-food program in America for four consecutive years.

Gist began her career in education 21 years ago, as a teacher in the Ft. Worth, Texas, elementary schools, where she focused on literacy education and applied learning. She later taught in Tampa, Florida, where she founded and directed a center on environmental education and later conceived, designed, and initiated Hillsborough Reads, which served families in 108 elementary schools in Hillsborough County. She won “Teacher of the Year” honors at her schools in both Ft. Worth and Tampa.

In addition to spending 10 years serving directly in schools, Gist was a senior policy analyst at the U.S. Department of Education. She advised the secretary and deputy secretary on top issues, analyzed proposed policy initiatives, and conducted research and feasibility studies. Gist also served as the marketing and development director of the Discovery Creek Children’s Museum, in Washington, and she later worked for the Office of the Mayor, in Washington, as the executive director of the office on volunteerism and service programs, Serve DC. While in Washington, Gist served as a volunteer mentor and a board member for Mentors, Inc.

Gist earned a master’s degree in public administration from the Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, where she was also selected as a Kennedy Fellow and received the Littauer Fellowship for academic excellence and community service. She has a Bachelor of Science degree in early-childhood education from the University of Oklahoma and a Master of Arts in elementary education, with an emphasis in curriculum, from the University of South Florida. Gist became a certified public manager, following successful completion of a joint program with the District of Columbia government and the George Washington University. In 2008, she completed a fellowship with the Broad Academy for Superintendents, which prepares talented leaders to take on executive leadership roles in urban education.

Checkout the Collection of ASCII Art and Pictures of Deborah.A.Gist from the below link. Download the file and extract it to your PC. To view the ASCII Art that has been stored in the Notepad Text File, Open the text file in Notepad. Then Go to Format and Uncheck WordWrap, then In Format Go to Font and Change the Font to Lucida Console and Set the Font Size to 3 or 4 Pt. Now you could be able to see the ASCII Art. Maximize the window to view in full extent. ENJOY ! !

http://www.4shared.com/file/CU_sgAPC/Deborah.html

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