JIMBO – THE INTERNET ENTREPRENEUR

 

 

ABOUT JIMBO:

Jimmy Donal “Jimbo” Wales was born August 7, 1966, is an American Internet entrepreneur and a co-founder and promoter of Wikipedia.

Wales was born in Huntsville, Alabama in the United States. He attended Randolph School, a university-preparatory school, then earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in finance. While in graduate school, he taught at two universities, but left before completing a Ph.D. in order to take a job in finance and later worked as the research director of a Chicago futures and options firm. In 1996, he and two partners founded Bomis, a male-oriented web portal featuring entertainment and adult content. The company would provide the initial funding for the peer-reviewed free encyclopedia Nupedia (2000–2003) and its successor, Wikipedia.

In 2001, together with Larry Sanger and others, Wales helped launch Wikipedia, a free, open content encyclopedia that enjoyed rapid growth and popularity, and as Wikipedia’s public profile grew, he became the project’s promoter and spokesman. He is historically cited as a co-founder of Wikipedia, though he has disputed the “co-” designation, declaring himself the sole founder. Wales serves on the Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation, the non-profit charitable organization he helped establish to operate Wikipedia, holding its board-appointed “community founder” seat. In 2004, he co-founded Wikia, a for-profit wiki-hosting service.

Wales has been married twice and has a daughter with his second wife Christine, from whom he is separated. He describes himself as an Objectivist and, with reservations, a libertarian. His role in creating Wikipedia, which has become the world’s largest encyclopedia, prompted Time magazine to name him in its 2006 list of the world’s most influential people.

SALARY:

Jimmy Wales’ biography on Wikipedia claims that he is independently wealthy. According to Wikipedia, Wales made enough money while working in the finance industry in Chicago to support himself and his wife for the rest of their lives. An article in Wired is cited. However on the talk page, Wales claims that his net worth is considerably less: “I do not have millions of dollars. I do not even have one million dollars.”

It is likely that Wales makes his living from Wikipedia. He is not paid directly by the Wikimedia Foundation, and he claims that he is not reimbursed for expenses while conducting Wikipedia business, even when traveling to board meetings. The way Mr. Wales makes a living is by getting $50,000 to $70,000 per speaking engagement when he goes and lectures about Wikipedia.

He also uses these speaking opportunities to publicize a side project, Wikia, which is for-profit. Wikipedia also deviates from its usual low tolerance for spam, allowing thousands of links to Wikia and not giving them the usual “no follow” treatment, thus elevating Wikia’s search engine rankings. This “interwiki” treatment is not always available to other websites.

The recent announcement of a partnership with Orange, a European telecommunications company, shows that Wales has a renewed interest in monetizing the content on Wikipedia.

JIMBO’s VISION:

Jimbo Wales wants Wikipedia to be open for everyone. He does not like to ban anyone, and indeed refused to ban anyone at all initially and did not allow admins to have the ability to ban. Jimbo is also keen on privacy, to the extent that admins cannot even see IP addresses, and to see something as commonplace as an IP address requires special magical CheckUser abilities that only a select few have.

Sadly, such rules end up being abused and making it less private than ever and more able to be abused with power tripping and corruption than a more open system. Jimbo’s vision is to create a serious encyclopaedia. He doesn’t particularly like it when people make fun of it, or treat it as anything less than super serious.

OTHERS:

In May 2010, Jimbo attempted to delete some of the pornography from Wikimedia Commons. He was condemned by a majority of Wikimedians and pressured to remove some administrative tools from his “founder” software status. Wikipedia was started by Bomis, an internet company that offered adult content. Bomis was founded by Jimmy Wales and Tim Shell. Bomis funded Wikipedia in the early days before Wikipedia began accepting donations.

Jimmy Wales claims to have no connection with Wikileaks (wikileaks.org). However his company, Wikia, owns the domain names wikileaks.com, wikileaks.net, and wikileaks.us. All three of these sites publish content from Wikileaks. (Note: the www format must be used: e.g. www.wikileaks.com).

HONORS, AWARDS & POSITIONS:

  • 1) Wales received the Quadriga award on October 3, 2008
  • 2) Mid-2005 — Wales was appointed as a member of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School.
  • 3) October 3, 2005 — Wales joined the Board of Directors of Socialtext, a provider of wiki technology to businesses.
  • 4) 2006 — Wales joined the Board of Directors of the non-profit organization Creative Commons.
  • 5) May 8, 2006 — Wales was listed in the “Scientists & Thinkers” section of the 100 influential people special edition of Time magazine.
  • 6) June 3, 2006 — Wales received an honorary degree of doctor of laws from Knox College.
  • 7) May 3, 2006 — The Electronic Frontier Foundation awarded him a Pioneer Award.
  • 8) 2006 — Wales was appointed to the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence.
  • 9) January 23, 2007 — Forbes magazine ranked Wales twelfth in its first annual “The Web Celebs 25”.
  • 10) 2007 — Wales was recognized by the World Economic Forum as one of the ‘Young Global Leaders’ of 2007.
  • 11) May 2008 — Wales co-chaired the World Economic Forum on the Middle East 2008 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.
  • 12) 2008 — CORUM awarded him The Global Brand Icon of the Year Award for 2008.
  • 13) 2008 — Wales accepted on behalf of the Wikimedia project the Quadriga award of Werkstatt Deutschland for A Mission of Enlightenment.
  • 14) October 30, 2008 — Wales was awarded the Business Process Award at the 7th Annual Innovation Awards and Summit by The 15) Economist “for public collaboration as a form of product and content development.”
  • 16) November 4, 2009 — Wales was recognized with the Nokia Foundation annual award (2009) “for his contributions to the evolution of the World Wide Web as a participatory and truly democratic platform”.
  • 17) November 2009 — Wales was awarded the Monaco Media Prize for enabling collaborative knowledge-seeking.
  • 18) December 7, 2009 — Wales announced that he will be joining the New York City-based Hunch.com as Board Member and advisor.
  • 19) April 8, 2010 — Wales was honored as a Stuart Regen Visionary at New Museum in New York City.
  • 20) May 21, 2010 — Wales received an honorary degree of doctor of laws from Stevenson University. Wales said that this was the very first college commencement speech that he had delivered.
  • 21) May 23, 2010 — Wales received an honorary degree of doctor of humane letters from Amherst College.
  • 22) January 26, 2011 — Wales was slated to be awarded on the foregoing date the Gottlieb Duttweiler Prize according to an announcement made on October 8, 2010.

AS AN AUTHOR:

  • 1) Brooks, Robert; Jon Corson, Jimmy Donal Wales (1994). “The Pricing of Index Options When the Underlying Assets All Follow a Lognormal Diffusion”. Advances in Futures and Options Research 7.
  • 2) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (December 31, 2008), “Foreword”, in Fraser, Matthew; Dutta, Soumitra, Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom: How Online Social Networking Will Transform Your Life, Work and World (1st ed.), Wiley, ISBN 0470740140, OCLC 233939846.
  • 3) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (January 8, 2009). “Commentary: Create a tech-friendly U.S. government”. CNN.com.
  • 4) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (February 10, 2009), “Foreword”, in Powell, Juliette, 33 Million People in the Room: How to Create, Influence, and Run a Successful Business with Social Networking (1st ed.), Financial Times Press, ISBN 0137154356, OCLC 244066502.
  • 5) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (March 3, 2009), “Foreword”, in Weber, Larry, Marketing to the Social Web: How Digital Customer Communities Build Your Business (2nd ed.), Wiley, ISBN 0470410973, OCLC 244060887.
  • 6) Wales, Jimmy (March 17, 2009), Lih, Andrew, ed., The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World’s Greatest Encyclopedia (1st ed.), Hyperion, ISBN 1401303714, OCLC 232977686.
  • 7) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (March 30, 2009). “Most Define User-Generated Content Too Narrowly”. Advertising Age 80.
  • 8) Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (December 28, 2009). “Keep a Civil Cybertongue”. The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company).
Checkout the ASCII Art and Pictures of Jimbo in the below link. Extract the Files from WinRAR Archive. Please use Lucida Console font to view the ascii art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.
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MICHAEL POLLAN – FAMOUS AMERICAN AUTHOR

Michael Pollan was born on Sunday, February 06, 1955 and he is a famous American author, journalist, activist, and professor of journalism at the University of California, Berkeley. Pollan was born to author and financial consultant Stephen Pollan and columnist Corky Pollan. Pollan received a B.A. from Bennington College in 1977 and an M.A. in English from Columbia University in 1981. He lives in the Bay Area with his wife, the painter Judith Belzer, and their son, Isaac.

For the past twenty-five years, Michael Pollan has been writing books and articles about the places where nature and culture intersect: on our plates, in our farms and gardens, and in the built environment. He is the author of four New York Times bestsellers: Food Rules: An Eater’s Manual (2010); In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto (2008); The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (2006) and The Botany of Desire: A Plant’s-Eye View of the World (2001). The Omnivore’s Dilemma was named one of the ten best books of 2006 by both the New York Times and the Washington Post. It also won the California Book Award, the Northern California Book Award, the James Beard Award, and was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award. A young readers edition called The Omnivore’s Dilemma: the Secrets Behind What You Eat was published in 2009. The Botany of Desire received the Borders Original Voices Award for the best non-fiction work of 2001, and was recognized as a best book of the year by the American Booksellers Association and Amazon.com. PBS premiered a two-hour special documentary based on The Botany of Desire in fall 2009. Pollan is also the author of A Place of My Own (1997) and Second Nature (1991).Pollan was named to the 2010 TIME 100, the magazine’s annual list of the world’s 100 most influential people. In 2009 he was named by Newsweek as one of the top 10 “New Thought Leaders.” A contributing writer to The New York Times Magazine since 1987, his writing has received numerous awards: he was a finalist for the National Magazine Award in 2009 for best essay; he received the James Beard Award for best magazine series in 2003; the John Burroughs prize in 1997 for best natural history essay; the QPB New Vision Award for his first book, Second Nature; the 2000 Reuters-I.U.C.N. Global Award for Environmental Journalism for his reporting on genetically modified crops; the 2003 Humane Society of the United States’ Genesis Award for his writing on animal agriculture; the 2008 Truth in Agricultural Journalism Award from the American Corngrowers Association; the 2009 President’s Citation Award from the American Institute of Biological Sciences, and the 2009 Voices of Nature Award from the Natural Resources Defense Council. His essays have appeared in many anthologies, including Best American Essays (1990 and 2003), Best American Science Writing (2004), the Norton Book of Nature Writing, and The New Kings of Non-Fiction, edited by Ira Glass. In addition to publishing regularly in The New York Times Magazine, his articles have appeared in Harper’s Magazine (where he served as executive editor from 1984 to 1994), National Geographic, Mother Jones, The Nation, The New York Review of Books, Vogue, Travel + Leisure, Gourmet, House & Garden and Gardens Illustrated, among others. In 2009, he appeared in a two-hour PBS special based on The Botany of Desire as well as in the documentary, Food Inc., which received an Academy Award nomination.

In 2003, Pollan was appointed the John S. and James L. Knight Professor of Journalism at UC Berkeley’s Graduate School of Journalism, and the director of the Knight Program in Science and Environmental Journalism. In addition to teaching, he lectures widely on food, agriculture, health and the environment.Pollan is a contributing writer for the New York Times Magazine, a former executive editor for Harper’s Magazine, and author of five books: In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto (2008) The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (2006), The Botany of Desire: A Plant’s-Eye View of the World (2001), A Place of My Own (1997), and Second Nature A Gardener’s Education (1991).

His recent work has dealt with the practices of the meat industry, and he has written a number of articles on trends in American agriculture. He has received the Reuters World Conservation Union Global Awards in environmental journalism, the James Beard Foundation Awards for best magazine series in 2003, and the Genesis Award from the American Humane Association. His articles have been anthologized in Best American Science Writing (2004), Best American Essays (1990 and 2003), The Animals: Practicing Complexity (2006) and the Norton Book of Nature Writing (1990).

Pollan co-starred in the documentary, Food, Inc. (2008), for which he was also a consultant.

BOOKS

 

  • Pollan, Michael (1991). Second Nature: A Gardener’s Education. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 9780871134431.
  • Pollan, Michael (1997). Place of My Own: The Education of an Amateur Builder. New York: Random House. ISBN 9780679415329.
  • Pollan, Michael (2001). The Botany of Desire: A Plant’s-Eye View of the World. New York: Random House. ISBN 9780375501296.
  • Pollan, Michael (2006). The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 9781594200823.
  • Pollan, Michael (2008). In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 9781594201455.
  • Pollan, Michael (2009). Food Rules: An Eater’s Manual. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0143116387.

ESSAYS

  • Pollan, Michael (April, 1997). “Opium Made Easy”. Harper’s.
  • Pollan, Michael (July 19, 2002). “When a Crop Becomes King”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (November 10, 2002). “An Animal’s Place”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (June 4, 2006). “Mass Natural”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (June 11, 2006). “Six rules for eating wisely”. Time magazine. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (January 28, 2007). “Unhappy Meals”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (22April 2007). “You Are What You Grow”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (December 16, 2007). “Our Decrepit Food Factories”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (April 20, 2008). “Why bother?”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  • Pollan, Michael (October 9, 2008). “An Open Letter to the Farmer in Chief”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
  • Pollan, Michael (July 29, 2009). “Out of the Kitchen, Onto the Couch”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-02.
  • Pollan, Michael (September 9, 2009). “Big Food vs. Big Insurance”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-14.

INTERVIEWS

  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Ketzel Levine. A Plant’s-Eye View Of The World (audio). Morning Edition. NPR. June 4, 2001. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Helen Wagenvoord. The Cheapest Calories Make You the Fattest (transcript). Sierra Magazine. September 2004. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Jason Marsh. Edible Ethics (transcript). Greater Good magazine. Spring/Summer 2006. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Amy Goodman. In Defense of Food (video/audio/transcript). Democracy Now. February 13, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Warren Etheredge. An Evening with Michael Pollan (audio). The Warren Report. October 30, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Bill Moyers. Bill Moyers Journal. PBS. November 28, 2008. (Interview ). Retrieved on 2008-11-29.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Melissa Moser. Food and Fossil Fuels (video). Powering A Nation: UNC News21 Project. June 25, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-08-04.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Melissa Moser. Checking Out Michael Pollan’s Garden (video). Powering A Nation: UNC News21 Project. June 25, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-08-04.
  • Michael Pollan. Interview with Waylon Lewis. Walk the Talk Show with Waylon Lewis interview: Michael Pollan. Sponsored by Gaiam. (video). Walk the Talk Show with Waylon Lewis. June 22, 2009. Retrieved on 2010-09-23.

Checkout the ASCII Art and Pictures of Michael Pollan in the below link. Extract the Files from WinRAR Archive. Please use Lucida Console font to view the ascii art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.

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ROGER TOMLINSON – FATHER OF GIS

Roger F. Tomlinson, CM (born 17 November 1933) is an English geographer and the primary originator of modern computerized Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and has been touted as the “Father of GIS”. He is known as a visionary geographer who conceived and developed GIS for use by the Canada Land Inventory. His pioneering work, beginning in the early1960s, changed the face of geography as a discipline and he was awarded an Order of Canada, which is Canada’s highest civilian honor. Governments and scientists around the world have turned to him to better understand the environment and changing patterns of land use, and to better manage urban development and the use of natural resources.Dr. Tomlinson’s contributions include chairmanship of the International Geographical Union’s GIS Commission for 12 years, and where he pioneered the concepts of worldwide geographical data availability. He is a past president of the Canadian Association of Geographers and a recipient of its rare Award for Service to the Profession. The Association of American Geographers in the United States awarded him the James R. Anderson Medal of Honor for Applied Geography in 1995. Dr. Tomlinson is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and winner of its prestigious Murchison Award for the Development of Geographic Information Systems. In 1996 he was awarded the GIS World Lifetime Achievement Award for a lifetime of work with geographic information systems, and he was the first recipient of the ESRI Lifetime Achievement Award in 1997. Dr. Tomlinson was awarded the Order of Canada in February of 2004.

Born in Cambridge, England, Dr. Tomlinson adopted Canada as his home in 1957. During the spring of 1962, while on a plane bound from Ottawa to Toronto he met Lee Pratt, then recently named head of the Canada Land Inventory (CLI). Tomlinson then was chief of the computer mapping division at a Canadian airline service. Pratt described a vast mapping project CLI was about to undertake – a multilayer land-use/ planning map of Canada’s inhabited and productive land–around 1 million square miles. Tomlinson told Pratt some of his ideas might work for CLI and Pratt eventually hired him to head the program that resulted in the first GIS.

He holds bachelor’s degrees from Nottingham University in England and Acadia University in Canada; a master’s degree from McGill University in Canada; and a Ph.D. from University College in England.

Dr. Tomlinson is the principal of Tomlinson Associates, Ltd., Consulting Geographers, which was established in 1977 in Ottawa, Ontario. He has advised clients such as the World Bank, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the U.S. departments of Commerce and Agriculture, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Bureau of the Census, the Canadian Forest Service, and numerous U.S. state and Canadian provincial and municipal government agencies.

Checkout the ASCII Art and Pictures of Roger Tomlinson in the below link. Extract the Files from WinRAR Archive. Please use Lucida Console font to view the ASCII art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.

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CONFUCIUS – THE MOST INFLUENTIAL CHINESE PHILOSOPHER

The Chinese teacher and philosopher Confucius was the founder of the school of philosophy known as the Ju or Confucianism, which is still very influential in China. He was born on 551 B.C.E in Tuo, China.

INFO OF HIS LIFE

Confucius is the Latinized name of K’ung Fu-tzu (Great Master K’ung). His original name was K’ung Ch’iu; he is also known as K’ung Chung-ni. The most detailed traditional account of Confucius’s life is contained in the Records of the Historian (Shih chi) by Ssu-ma Ch’ien, who lived from 145 B.C.E. to 86 B.C.E. Many modern scholars have dismissed this biography as only legend. Nevertheless, from this manuscript one can reconstruct a satisfactory outline of the philosopher’s life and influence.

According to the Records of the Historian, Confucius was a descendant of a branch of the royal house of Shang, the dynasty (a family of rulers) that ruled China prior to the Chou, and a dynasty which ruled China from around 1122 B.C.E. to 221 B.C.E. His family, the K’ung, moved to the small state of Lu, located in the modern province of Shantung in northeastern China.

It was believed that Confucius’s father divorced his first wife at an advanced age, because she had borne him only daughters and one disfigured son. He then married a fifteen-year-old girl from the Yen clan, who gave birth to Confucius. Ssu-ma Ch’ien refers to the relationship as a “wild union,” which very possibly indicates that Confucius was an illegitimate child, or a child born out of wedlock.

In the Analects, Confucius’s book of teachings, he writes that during his youth he was poor and was forced to acquire many different skills. It is clear that even though the fortunes of his family had declined, he was no commoner. Confucius unquestionably belonged to the aristocratic (ruling) class known as the shih. In the time of Confucius most shih served as court officials, scholars, and teachers. Confucius’s first occupation appears to have been as keeper of the Lu granary. Later he worked as supervisor of the fields. Both were low positions but consistent with his shih status.

CAREER AS A TEACHER

It is not known exactly when Confucius began his teaching career, but it does not appear to have been much before the age of thirty. In 518 B.C.E. he is said to have met the famous teacher Lao Tzu (sixth century B.C.E. ), who reportedly bluntly criticized Confucius for his stuffiness and arrogance. Confucius eventually returned to Lu around 515 B.C.E. For several years after his return he does not appear to have accepted a governmental position. Instead it appears he spent most of his time studying and teaching, gathering a large number of students around him. Although one can only guess about the school’s exact course work, it undoubtedly included instruction in ritual, music, history, and poetry.

Around 498 B.C.E. , Confucius decided to leave his home in Lu and embark on a long journey throughout eastern China. He was accompanied by several of his disciples (followers). They wandered throughout the eastern states of Wei, Sung, and Ch’en and at various times had their lives threatened. Confucius was almost assassinated (killed) in Sung. On another occasion he was mistaken for the adventurer Yang Hu and was arrested and held until his true identity became known.

Confucius was received with great respect by the rulers of the states he visited, and he even seems to have received occasional payments. He spent much of his time developing his ideas on the art of government, as well as continuing his teaching. He acquired a large following, and the solidification of the Confucian school probably occurred during these years. Not all of his disciples followed him on his travels. Several of them actually returned to Lu and assumed positions with the Chi clan. It may have been through their influence that in 484 B.C.E. Confucius was invited back to Lu.

FINAL YEARS

Confucius was warmly received in Lu, but there is no indication that he was given a responsible position. Little is known about his last years, although this would have been a logical time for him to work on the many texts and documents he supposedly gathered on his journey. Much of his time was devoted to teaching, and he seems to have remained more or less distant from political affairs. This was an unhappy period for Confucius. His only son died about this time; his favorite disciple, Yen Hui, died the very year of his return to Lu; and in 480 B.C.E. another disciple, Tzu-lu, was killed in battle. Confucius felt all of these losses deeply, and his sadness and frustration must have been intensified by the realization that his political ideas had found no support among the rulers of his own state. Confucius died in 479 B.C.E in Qufu, China. His disciples conducted his funeral and observed a mourning period for him.

CONFUCIUS’S TEACHINGS

Although we cannot be certain that Confucius wrote any of the works he is credited with, it is still possible to know something about the general nature of his philosophy. Shortly after his death his disciples compiled a work known as the Lun yü, commonly translated as the Analects but more accurately rendered as the Edited Conversations. This work consists of conversations between Confucius, his students, and an occasional ruler. The primary emphasis of the Lun yü is on political philosophy. Confucius taught that the primary task of the ruler was to achieve the welfare (well-being) and happiness of the people of his state. To accomplish this aim, the ruler first had to set a moral (good character) example by his own conduct. This example would in turn influence the people’s behavior.

Confucius is the first Chinese thinker to introduce concepts that became fundamental not only to Confucian philosophy but to Chinese philosophy in general. The most important of these are jen (benevolence), yi (propriety, or being proper), and li (ritual, or ceremony). Confucius believed that the chün-tzu, or “gentleman,” must set the moral example for others in society to follow. In the Lun yü jen, what has been translated as humaneness or benevolence (being kind) is a quality a chün-tzu should develop and attempt to encourage in others. Li is considered the rules and ritual that are observed in religious and nonreligious ceremonies and, as applied to the chün-tzu, composed rules of behavior. Yi represents what is right and proper in a given situation. The chün-tzu, by observing the ritual and because of his good nature, always knows what is right.

Confucius was basically a humanist and one of the greatest teachers in Chinese history. His influence on his immediate disciples was deep. His students continued to explain his theories until, in the first Han dynasty (206 B.C.E. –8 C. E.), the theories became the basis of the state ideology, the body of ideas reflecting the social needs of a culture.

JESUS CHRIST – THE SAVIOUR

It is likely that Jesus was born not later than 4 B.C., the year of King Herod’s death. Jesus’ crucifixion was probably in A.D. 29 or 30. (The term Christ is actually a title, not a proper name; it comes from the Greek Christos, meaning the anointed one; in the Bible it is the Greek equivalent for the Hebrew word Messiah.) Information about Jesus is in some ways scant, in other ways plentiful. Although such ancient historians as Tacitus and Suetonius mention him, as does the Jewish Talmud, the only detailed information comes from the New Testament. There are a few other ancient accounts of Jesus’ life, called Apocryphal Gospels because of their poor historical reliability; and in 1946 a Gospel of Thomas, actually a collection of sayings attributed to Jesus, was discovered in Upper Egypt. But none of these sources adds significantly to the New Testament. The letters of Paul are the earliest biblical records that tell about Jesus. But the four Gospels by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, although written later, used sources that in some cases go back very close to the time of Jesus.EARLY YEARS

Jesus first came to general attention at the time of his baptism, just prior to his public ministry. He was known to those around him as a carpenter of Nazareth, a town in Galilee, and as the son of Joseph (John 6:42). Matthew and Luke report that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, a town near Jerusalem, famous in Jewish history as the city of David. They further report that he was miraculously born to the Virgin Mary, although they both curiously trace his Davidic ancestry through Joseph, to whom Mary was betrothed.

Little is known of Jesus’ childhood and youth. But about the year A.D. 28 or 29 his life interacted with the career of John the Baptist, a stormy prophet-preacher who emerged from the wilderness and called on the people to repent and be baptized. A controversial character, he was soon jailed and killed by Herod Antipas, the puppet ruler of Galilee under the Roman Empire. Jesus heard John’s preaching and joined the crowds for baptism in the Jordan River. Following his baptism Jesus went into the desert for prayer and meditation.

It is clear that Jesus had some consciousness of a divine calling, and in the desert he thought through its meaning. The Gospels report that he was tempted there by Satan as to what kind of leader Jesus would choose to be – a miracle worker, a benefactor who would bring people what they wanted, a king wielding great power. Jesus accepted a harder and less popular mission, that of the herald of the kingdom of God.GALILEAN MINISTRY

Returning from the desert, Jesus began preaching and teaching in Galilee. His initial proclamation was similar to John’s: “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent, and believe in the gospel” (Mark 1:15; Revised Standard Version). This message was both frightening and hopeful. It told people not to cling to the past, that God would overthrow old institutions and ways of life for a wonderful new future. This future would be especially welcomed by the poor, the powerless, the peacemakers. It would be threatening to the rich, the powerful, the cruel, and the unjust.

Jesus attracted 12 disciples to follow him. They were mainly fishermen and common workers. Of the 12 it seems that Peter, James, and John were closest to Jesus. Peter’s home in Capernaum, a city on the Sea of Galilee, became a headquarters from which Jesus and the disciples moved out into the countryside. Sometimes he talked to large crowds. Then he might withdraw with the 12 to teach only them. Or he might go off by himself for long periods of prayer. On one occasion he sent out the disciples, two by two, to spread the message of God’s kingdom.

THE MIRACLES

The records concerning Jesus report many miracles. Through the years there have been great disagreements about these reports. For centuries most people in civilizations influenced by the Bible not only believed literally in the miracles but took them as proofs that Jesus had a supernatural power. Then, in an age of rationalism and skepticism, men often doubted the miracles and denounced the reports as fraudulent.

Today, partly because of psychosomatic medicine and therapy, people are more likely to believe in the possibilities of faith healing. The Bible candidly reports that on some occasions, when people had no faith, Jesus could do no mighty works. People were especially skeptical in his home-town, where they had known him as a boy (Mark 6:1-6). However, usually the Gospels report the healings as signs of the power of God and His coming kingdom.

TEACHINGS OF JESUS

Jesus taught people in small groups or large gatherings; his sayings are reported in friendly conversations or in arguments with those who challenged him. At times he made a particularly vivid comment in the midst of a dramatic incident. The starting point of his message, as already noted, was the announcement of the coming of the kingdom of God. Since this kingdom was neither a geographical area nor a system of government, it might be better to translate the phrase as “God’s reign.”

The rest of Jesus’ teaching followed from this message about the reign of God. At times he taught in stories or parables that described the kingdom or the behavior of people who acknowledged God’s reign. Perhaps the most famous of his many parables are those of the Prodigal Son and the Good Samaritan. At times he pronounced ethical commandments detailing the demands upon men of a loving and righteous God. At times Jesus taught his disciples to pray: the words that he gave them in the Lord’s Prayer are often used today. Jesus’ teaching was a subtle teaching, and often it was directed to the needs of a particular person in a specific time and place. Therefore almost any summary can be challenged by statements of Jesus that point in an opposite direction. One way to explore the dynamics of his teachings is to investigate some of its paradoxes. Five are worth mentioning here.First, Jesus combined an utter trust in God with a brute realism about the world. On the one hand, he told men not to be anxious about life’s problems, because God knows their needs and will look out for them. So if men trust God and seek His kingdom, God will look out for the rest of their needs. Yet, on the other hand, Jesus knew well that life can be tough and painful. He asked men to give up families and fortunes, to accept persecution out of faithfulness to him, thus promising them a hard life.Second, Jesus taught both ethical rigor and forgiveness. He demanded of men more than any other prophet or teacher had asked. He criticized the sentimentalists who call him “Lord, Lord” but do not obey him, and he told men that, if they are to enter God’s kingdom, their righteousness must exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees, who made exceedingly conscientious efforts to obey God’s laws. He told men not to be angry or contemptuous with others, not to lust after women, and not to seek revenge but to love their enemies. Yet this same Jesus understood human weakness. He was known as a friend of sinners who warned men not to make judgments of others whom they consider sinful. He forgave men their sins and told about a God who seeks to save sinners.

Third, Jesus represented a kind of practicality that offends the overly spiritual-minded; but he also espoused an expectation of a future world (God’s reign) that will make the attractions of this world unimportant. As a worldly man, he wanted to relieve hunger and sickness. He wanted no escape from responsibility into worship. He taught that sometimes a man would better leave church and go to undo the wrongs he has done. But with this attention to the world was coupled the recognition that men are foolish to seek security and happiness in wealth or possessions. They would do better to give away their riches and to accept persecution. Jesus promised – or warned – that God’s reign will reverse many of the values of this world.

Fourth, Jesus paradoxically combined love and peace with conflict. His followers called him the Prince of Peace, because he sought to reconcile men to God and each other. He summed up all the commandments in two: love for God and love for men. He refused to retaliate against those who had harmed him but urged his followers to forgive endlessly – not simply seven times but seventy times seven. Yet he was not, as some have called him, “gentle Jesus, meek and mild” he attacked evil fearlessly, even in the highest places.

Fifth, Jesus promised joy, freedom, and exuberant life; yet he expected sacrifice and self-denial. He warned men not to follow him unless they were ready to suffer. But he told people to rejoice in the wonders of God’s reign, to celebrate the abundant life that he brings.

VIEWS OF HIS CONTEMPORARIES

To some people Jesus was a teacher or rabbi. The healing ministry did not necessarily change that conception of him, because other rabbis were known as healers. But Jesus was a teacher of peculiar power, and he was sometimes thought to be a prophet.

Jesus certainly was a herald of the kingdom of God. But then a question arises: was he simply talking about God and his reign, or did he have some special relationship to that kingdom? Those who heard Jesus were frequently perplexed. In some ways he was a modest, even humble man. Instead of making claims for himself or accepting admiration, he turned people’s thoughts from himself to God. But at other times he asked immense loyalty of his disciples. And he astonished people by challenging time-honored authority – even the authority of the Bible – with his new teachings. He was so audacious as to forgive sins, although men said that only God could do that.

There was also the question whether it was possible that Jesus was the Messiah. For generations some of the Jewish people had hoped that God would send a king, an heir of the great King David of past history, who would undo the oppression that the Jews suffered, would reestablish the glorious old kingdom, and would bring justice. Some expected even more – that a divine savior would come and inaugurate a radical transformation of life.

Various reports in the New Testament lead to various possible conclusions. Today some scholars think that Jesus never claimed to be the Messiah. Others feel that he clearly did. But there was one occurrence that is especially interesting. Once, in the neighborhood of Caesarea Philippi, a city north of the Sea of Galilee (Mark 8:27-30), Jesus asked his disciples, “Who do men say that I am?” They gave various answers: John the Baptist, Elijah, or another of the prophets. Then Jesus asked, “But who do you say that I am?” And Peter answered, “You are the Christ [Messiah].” Jesus’ answer was curious, for “He charged them to tell no one about him.”

Why, if he accepted the designation, did he want it kept a secret? One persuasive answer often given is that Jesus was radically revising the traditional idea of the Messiah. If the people thought he was the promised Messiah, they would demand that he live up to their expectations. He had no intention of becoming a conquering king who would overthrow Rome.

Jesus, who knew the Old Testament well, had read the Messianic prophecies. He had also read the poems of the suffering servant in Second Isaiah, the unknown prophet whose writings are now in Isaiah, chapters 40-55. These tell of a servant of God and man, someone despised and rejected, who would bear the cost of the sins of others and bring healing to them. It may be that Jesus combined in his own mind the roles of the Messiah and the suffering servant. The undeniable fact is that his life and character were of such a sort that they convinced his followers he was the Messiah who, through his suffering love, could bring men a new experience of forgiveness and new possibilities for human and social life.

PASSION WEEK

Soon after Peter’s confession Jesus led his disciples to Jerusalem in an atmosphere of gathering crisis. On the day now known as Palm Sunday he entered the city, while his disciples and the crowds hailed him as the Son of David, who came in the name of the Lord. The next day Jesus went to the Temple and drove out the money changers and those who sold pigeons for sacrifices, accusing them of turning “a house of prayer” into a “den of robbers.” This act was a direct challenge to the small group of priests who were in charge of the Temple, and they clearly resented it. During the following days he entered into controversies with the priests and authoritative teachers of religion. Their anger led them to plot to get rid of him, but they hesitated to do anything in the daytime, since many people were gathered for the feast of Passover.

On Thursday night Jesus had a meal with his disciples. This meal is now reenacted by Christians in the Lord’s Supper, the Mass, or the Holy Communion. After the meal Jesus went to the Garden of Gethsemane, where he prayed alone. His prayer shows that he expected a conflict, that he still hoped that he might avoid suffering, but that he expected to do God’s will. There into the garden one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, led the priests and the temple soldiers, who seized Jesus. That same night Jesus’ captors took him to a trial before the temple court, the Sanhedrin. Several evidences indicate that this was an illegal trial, but the Sanhedrin declared that Jesus was a blasphemer deserving death. Since at that time only the Roman overlords could carry out a death sentence, the priests took Jesus to Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea.

Pilate apparently was reluctant to condemn Jesus, since it was doubtful that Jesus had disobeyed any Roman laws. But as the ruler of a conquered province, Pilate was suspicious of any mass movements that might become rebellions. And he also preferred to keep the religious leaders of the subjugated people as friendly as possible. Jesus, as a radical intruder into the conventional system, and believing that obedience to God sometimes required defiance of human authority, represented a threat to both the Sanhedrin and the Romans. Pilate thus ordered the crucifixion of Jesus. Roman soldiers beat him, put a crown of thorns on his head, and mocked him as a fraudulent king. Then they took him to the hill Golgotha (“the Skull”), or Calvary, and killed him as an insurrectionist. Pilate ordered a sign placed above his head: “King of the Jews.” Among the “seven last words,” or sayings, from the cross are two quotations from Jewish psalms, “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” (Psalms 22:1) and “Into thy hands I commit my spirit” (Psalms 31:5); and the especially memorable “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do” (Luke 23:34). That same day (now known as Good Friday) Jesus was buried in a cavelike tomb.

THE RESURRECTION

On Sunday morning (now celebrated as Easter), the Gospels report, Jesus rose from the dead and met his disciples. Others immediately rejected the claim of the resurrection, and the controversy has continued through the centuries.

The New Testament states very clearly that the risen Christ did not appear to everybody. “God … made him manifest; not to all the people but to us who were chosen by God as witnesses, who ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead” (Acts 10:40-41). Among those who saw Jesus were Cephas (Peter), the 12 disciples, “more than five hundred brethren at one time,” James, “all the apostles,” and finally Paul. Other records tell of appearances to Mary Magdalene and other women and of a variety of meetings with the disciples both in the Jerusalem area and in Galilee. The four Gospels all say that the tomb of Jesus was empty on Easter morning, but Paul never mentions the empty tomb. None of the records ever tells of an appearance of the risen Christ to anyone who had not been a follower of Jesus or (like Paul) had not been deeply disturbed by him.

The evidence is very clear that the followers of Jesus were absolutely convinced of his resurrection. The experience of the risen Jesus was so overwhelming that it turned their despair into courage. Even though it might have been easier, and certainly would have been safer, to regard Jesus as dead, the disciples spread the conviction that he had risen, and they persisted in telling their story at the cost of persecution and death. Furthermore they were sure that their experiences of Jesus were not private visions; rather, as in the statement quoted above, they “ate and drank with him.” The faith in the resurrection (and later the ascension) of Jesus, despite differences in interpretation and detail, is a major reason for the rise and propagation of the Christian faith.

Checkout the ASCII Art, Wallpapers and Pictures of Jesus Christ in the below link. Extract the Files from WinRAR Archive. Please use Lucida Console font to view the ascii art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.

http://www.4shared.com/file/V5LHISld/Jesus.html

PADMA LAKSHMI – LADY RUSHDIE

Padma Parvati Lakshmi, Lady Rushdie (born September 1, 1970 in Chennai, India) is an Indian-American cookbook author, actress, and model who has described herself as the first well-known model from India. She has been the host of the reality television program Top Chef since season two and is an ambassador for the United Nations Development Fund for Women.

She was born into a Tamil Brahmin family in 1970 and raised in Madras, India and the United States. Her first name means “lotus” in Sanskrit, as well as “pearl” or “jewel.” Parvati is a consort of Shiva. Lakshmi is the name of the Hindu goddess of wealth. She attended the Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA and was studying in Spain when she was discovered. Magazines like Vogue, Elle and Glamour had her in their pages and she soon became a famous fashion model. Her career started and since then she modeled for names like Emmanuel Ungaro, Ralph Lauren, Alberta Ferretti and Roberto Cavalli.

Padma Lakshmi made a 2002 guest appearance as alien princess Kaitaama in Precious Cargo, the 37th episode of the popular science fiction TV series Star Trek: Enterprise. She was also hostess of Domenica In, Italy’s top-rated television show. She portrayed Sean Bean’s nemesis in the 2004 -2005 iTV TV series Sharpe’s Challenge. On April 17, 2004 she got married to Salman Rushdie, a novelist. In 2006 Lakshmi appeared in ABC’s TV series The Ten Commandments with Dougray Scott, Naveen Andrews, and Omar Sharif. Padma took over as hostess of the popular TV cooking competition series Top Chef in 2006 during its second season and continues in 2007 in its third season.

Her first cookbook Easy Exotic was awarded Best First Book at the 1999 World Cookbook Awards at Versailles. She was host of the Food Network series, Padma’s Passport, which is part of the larger series Melting Pot. She has also been a guest host on parts of the British culinary tourism show Planet Food, hosting the segments on India and Spain. Her second cookbook Tangy, Tart, Hot and Sweet was released October 2, 2007. The Food Network series, ‘Padma’s Passport’ and ‘Domenica In’ is hosted by her. Some of the movies in which she was seen are “Star Trek: Enterprise”, “Glitter”, “Boom”. She has a film production company and a cinematic partnership with her husband.

FILMOGRAPHY

  • Top Chef (1 episode, 2006)
  • Sharpe’s Challenge (2006) (TV)
  • The Ten Commandments (2006) (TV)
  • The Mistress of Spices (2005)
  • Boom (2003/I)
  • Enterprise (1 episode, 2002)
  • Glitter (2001)
  • Melting Pot (2001) TV Series
  • Caraibi (1999) (mini) TV Series
  • Figlio di Sandokan, Il (1998) (mini) TV Series
  • Linda e il brigadiere (1 episode)

SELF FILMOGRAPHY

  • Last Call with Carson Daly (1 episode, 2007)
  • Jimmy Kimmel Live (1 episode, 2007)
  • Top Chef (1 episode, 2006)
  • The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson (1 episode, 2006)
  • The Late Late Show with Craig Kilborn (1 episode, 2001)
  • Unzipped (1995) (uncredited)

Checkout the ASCII Art and Wallpapers of Padma Lakshmi in the below link. Extract the Files from WinRAR Archive. Please use Lucida Console font to view the art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.

http://www.4shared.com/file/-ihNLfgu/Padma_Lakshmi.html

ANGELINA JOLIE – HOLLYWOOD’S EXOTIC ACTRESS

Angelina Jolie (full name Angelina Jolie Voight) was born on 4 June, 1975 in Los Angeles, California, USA. She is a famous American actress and a former model. She is known for her exotic looks, her tumultuous off-screen life and her humanitarian work with refugees. Regarding her family, Angelina Jolie is the daughter of actors Jon Voight and Marcheline Bertrand and sister of James Haven. She is also niece of Chip Taylor and the god-daughter of Jacqueline Bisset and Maximilian Schell. Her grandparents were French-Canadian and her paternal-grandfather was from Czechoslovakia. Thus, she is of Czech and English descent on her father’s side and of French-Canadian and
Iroquois on her mother’s.

As a teenager , she dreamed of becoming a funeral director. She attended the Lee Strasberg Theatre Institute from the age of 11, later attending Beverly Hills High School. Though Angelina Jolie enrolled at the film school at New York University after finishing “Gia”, she did not complete her studies. She has been long estranged from her father, blaming his infidelity for the break-up of the family , though a reconciliation was attempted by his appearing with her in “Lara Croft: Tomb Raider”. In 2004, Angelina Jolie indicated that she was no longer interested in pursuing a relationship with her father, but that she did not hate him because she realised that “…we only have so much energy in this life”. Soon afterwards, he claimed that she has “serious emotional problems” while she legally dropped Voight as her last name and took “Angelina Jolie” as new legal name.

Before Angelina Jolie began a career as an actress, she was a model. Her first starring role came in the 1995 film Hackers. In 1998 Angelina Jolie achieved a major critical success, starring in the TV film “Gia”, the true story of 1970-80s supermodel Gia Carangi, who died of AIDS. She won Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild and Golden Satmifie awards and was nominated for an Emmy. She had roles in several box-office flops until 1999, when she co-starred in “The Bone Collector” with Denzel Washington and won an Oscar for “Girl, Interrupted”. Beside the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, the latter movie also brought three Golden Globes. Her first healding blockbuster role came from “Lara Croft: Tomb Raider”.

Several of her subsequent films, such as “Life or Something Like It”, “Alexander” and “Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow” were box-office disappointments, although Jolie herself usually received good notices. She did provide the voice of Lola in the successful animated film “Shark Tale”. Jolie quickly became one of Hollywood’s most “in-demand” actresses. Following the success of “Mr. & Mrs. Smith” (2005), she was set to earn up to $15 million to star in the film “The Good Shepherd” (2006).

Apart from her acting and humanitarian endeavours, Jolie has worked as a professional model in London, New York and Los Angeles and appeared in numerous music videos, including those of Korn, Meat Loaf, Lenny Kravitz, and The Rolling Stones. As for her private life, after divorcing from actors Jonny Lee Miller and Billy Bob Thornton, Jolie has a wonderfull life with actor Brad Pitt, in a relationship that has captured worldwide media attention. Jolie and Pitt have three adopted children, Maddox, Pax and Zahara, and a biological child, Shiloh.

ANGELINA JOLIE DATES

  • Jenny Shimizu (1994 – 1995)
  • Jonny Lee Miller (1996 – 1999)
  • Timothy Hutton (1998 – 1999)
  • Billy Bob Thornton (2000 – 2003)
  • Colin Farrel (2003 – 2004)
  • Brad Pitt (2005 – present)

FILMOGRAPHY

  • Wanted (2008) – Fox
  • Kung Fu Panda (voice) (2008) -Master Tigress
  • The Changeling (2008)
  • Atlas Shrugged (2008) -Dagny Taggart
  • Beowulf (2007) – Grendels Mother
  • A Mighty Heart ( 2007) – Marianne Pearl
  • The Good Shepherd (2006) – Catherine the Great
  • Mr. and Mrs. Smith (2005) – Jane Smith
  • Alexander (2004) – Olympias
  • Shark Tale (2004) (voice) – Lola
  • Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow (2004) – Capt. Franky Cook
  • Taking Lives (2004) – Illeana Scott
  • Beyond Borders (2003) – Sarah Jordan
  • Lara Croft and the Cradle of Life: Tomb Raider 2 (2003) – Lara Croft
  • Life or Something Like It (2002) – Lanie
  • Original Sin (2001) – Julia Russell
  • Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001) – Lara Croft
  • Gone in Sixty Seconds (2000) – Sara ‘Sway’ Wayland
  • Girl, Interrupted (1999) – Lisa Rowe
  • Bone Collector, The (1999) – Amelia Donaghy
  • Pushing Tin (1999) – Mary Bell
  • Playing by Heart (1998) – Joan
  • Hell’s Kitchen (1998) – Gloria McNeary
  • Gia (1998) (TV) – Gia Marie Carangi
  • Playing God (1997) – Claire
  • George Wallace (1997) (TV) – Cornelia Wallace
  • True Women (1997) (TV) – Georgia Virginia Lawshe Woods
  • Mojave Moon (1996) – Eleanor ‘Elie’ Rigby
  • Foxfire (1996) – Margret ‘Legs’ Sadovsky
  • Love Is All There Is (1996) – Gina Malacici
  • Without Evidence (1995) – Jodie Swearingen
  • Hackers (1995) – Kate Libby (‘Acid Burn’)
  • Cyborg 2 (1993) – Casella ‘Cash’ Reese
  • Lookin’ to Get Out (1982) – Tosh

Checkout the ASCII Art and Wallpapers of Angelina Jolie in the below link. Please use Lucida Console font to view the art in Notepad. Before that in Notepad go to Format and Uncheck the Word Warp and then Go to Font and Reduce the Font Size to 3 to 4 pt. Use only Lucida Console Font.

http://www.4shared.com/file/CQmfjwaD/Angelina_Jolie.html

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