Napoleon Bonaparte later known as Napoleon I, and previously Napoleone di Buonaparte, was a military and political leader of France whose actions shaped European politics in the early 19th century. He was born on 15th August 1769 in Ajaccio Corsica of France.Napoleon married Joséphine de Beauharnais in 1796, when he was twenty-six; she was a thirty-two-year old widow whose first husband had been executed during the Revolution. Until she met Bonaparte, she had been known as ‘Rose’, a name which he disliked. He called her ‘Joséphine’ instead, and she went by this name henceforth. He was trained as an artillery officer in mainland France, Bonaparte rose to prominence under the First French Republic and led successful campaigns against the First and Second Coalitions arrayed against France. installed himself as First Consul; five years later the French Senate proclaimed him Emperor of the French. In the first decade of the nineteenth century, the French Empire under Napoleon, engaged in a series of conflicts – the Napoleonic Wars – involving every major European power. After a streak of victories, France secured a dominant position in continental Europe and Napoleon maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states. The French invasion of Russia in 1812 marked a turning point in Napoleon’s fortunes. His Grande Armée was badly damaged in the campaign and never fully recovered. In 1813, the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig; the following year the Coalition invaded France, forced Napoleon to abdicate and exiled him to the island of Elba. Less than a year later, he escaped Elba and returned to power, but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. Napoleon spent the last six years of his life under British supervision on the island of Saint Helena. An autopsy concluded he died of stomach cancer, though Sten Forshufvud and other scientists have since conjectured that he was poisoned with arsenic. The conflict with the rest of Europe led to a period of total war across the continent and his campaigns are studied at military academies the world over. While considered a tyrant by his opponents, he is also remembered for the establishment of the Napoleonic code, which laid the administrative and judicial foundations for much of Western Europe. He died on 5th May 1821 in Longwood, Saint Helena of British Empire at an age of 1821.
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